The School of Biological Sciences offers educational opportunities in various areas of biology leading toward either the bachelor of science or the bachelor of arts degree. Study in the biological sciences prepares students for a variety of careers requiring knowledge of biological processes, such as teaching; environmental resource management and assessment; production and sales of biological materials; research in governmental, industrial, and academic laboratories; as well as preparation for careers in medicine, dentistry, and health-related professions.
Program Assessment. To assist the department in evaluating the effectiveness of its program, after significantly completing the course work, all majors will be required in their senior year to register for BIOS 99 Assessment of the Major and complete selected assessment activities. Results of participation in these assessment activities will in no way affect a student's GPA or graduation.
Cedar Point Biological Station. Biological sciences majors are strongly urged to attend the Cedar Point Biological Station for at least one summer session. Majors are also encouraged to do a research project with a faculty member.
The entrance requirements for the College of Arts and Sciences are the same as the UNL General Admission Requirements. Students who are admitted through the Admission by Review process may have certain conditions attached to their enrollment at UNL. These conditions are explained under “Removal of Deficiencies.”
In addition to these requirements, the College of Arts and Sciences strongly recommends a third and fourth year of one foreign language. Four years of high school coursework in the same language will fulfill the College of Arts and Sciences’ language requirement. It will also allow students to continue language study at a more advanced level at UNL, and provide more opportunity to study abroad.
To be considered for admission as a transfer student, Nebraska resident or nonresident, students must have an accumulated average of C (2.0 on a 4.0 scale) and a minimum C average in the last semester of attendance at another college. Transfer students who graduated from high school January 1997 and after must also meet the UNL General Admission Requirements. Those transfer students who graduated before January 1997 must have completed in high school, 3 years of English, 2 years of the same foreign language, 2 years of algebra, and 1 year of geometry. Transfer students who have completed less than 12 credit hours of college study must also submit either their ACT or SAT scores.
Ordinarily, hours earned at a similarly accredited college or university are applicable to the UNL degree. The College, however, will evaluate all hours submitted on an application for transfer, and reserves the right to accept or reject any of them, based upon its exclusion and restriction policies. Sixty is the maximum number of hours the University will accept on transfer from a two-year college or international institution. Transfer credit in the major or minor must be approved by the departmental advisor on a Request for Substitution Form to meet specific course requirements, group requirements, or course level requirements in the major or minor. At least half of the hours in the major field must be completed at the University regardless of the number of hours transferred.
The College of Arts and Sciences will accept no more than 15 semester hours of C- and D grades from other schools. The C- and D grades cannot be applied toward requirements for a major or minor. This policy does not apply to the transfer of grades from UNO or UNK to UNL. All D grades may be transferred from UNO or UNK, but they are not applicable to a major or minor.
UNL students who choose not to take courses for more than 2 consecutive terms, must reapply to UNL. Students readmitted to the College of Arts and Sciences will follow the requirements stated in the catalog for the academic year of readmission and re-enrollment as a degree-seeking student in Arts and Sciences. In consultation with advisors, a student may choose to follow a catalog for any academic year in which they are admitted to and enrolled as a degree-seeking student at UNL in the College of Arts and Sciences. Students must complete all degree requirements from a single catalog year. Beginning in 1990-1991, the catalog which a student follows for degree requirements may not be more than 10 years old at the time of graduation.
Admission Deficiencies/Removal of Deficiencies
Students must remove entrance deficiencies in geometry and foreign language as soon as possible, and before graduating from the College of Arts and Sciences. For questions and more information, students should consult a college advisor in the Academic and Career Advising Center in 107 Oldfather Hall.
Removing Foreign Language Deficiencies
Students must complete the second semester of a first year language sequence to clear the deficiency and the second semester of the second year language sequence to complete the college graduation requirement in language.
Removing Geometry Deficiencies
A deficiency of one year of geometry can be removed by taking high school geometry courses through an approved independent study program, or by completing a geometry course from an accredited community college or a four-year institution. Neither of these options will count for college credit.
College Degree Requirements
College Distribution Requirements
Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science (16 hours + Language)
The College of Arts and Sciences distribution requirements are designed to further the purposes of liberal education by encouraging study in several different areas within the College. All requirements are in addition to University ACE requirements. A student may not use a single course to satisfy more than one of the following five distribution requirements. A student cannot use a single course to satisfy both an ACE outcome and a College distribution requirement. A student cannot use a course from their primary major to satisfy the Breadth Requirement (F), but may apply an ancillary requirement of the primary major or a course from their second major toward this requirement. Independent study or reading courses and internships cannot be used to satisfy distribution requirements. To see a complete list of excluded courses, run a degree audit through MyRED.
Courses from interdisciplinary programs will count in the same area as courses from the home/cross-listed department(s).
|College Distribution Requirements|
|CDR A - Written Communication||3|
|Select from courses approved for ACE outcome 1.|
|CDR B and BL - Natural, Physical, and Mathematical Sciences with Lab||4|
|Select from biochemistry, biological sciences, chemistry, computer science, geology, meteorology, mathematics, physics and statistics. Must include one lab in the natural or physical sciences. Lab courses may be selected from biochemistry, biological sciences, chemistry, geology, meteorology and physics.|
|Some courses from geography and anthropology may also be used to satisfy the lab requirement above. 1|
|CDR C - Humanities||3|
|Select from classics, English, history, modern languages and literatures, philosophy, and religious studies. 2|
|CDR D - Social Science||3|
|Select from: anthropology, communication studies, geography, political science, psychology, or sociology. 3|
|CDR E - Language||0-16|
|Fulfilled by the completion of the 6-credit-hour second-year sequence in a single foreign language in one of the following departments: Classics and religious studies, modern languages and literatures, or anthropology. Instruction is currently available in Arabic, Chinese, Czech, French, German, Greek, Japanese, Latin, Omaha, Russian, and Spanish. A student who has completed the fourth-year level of one foreign language in high school is exempt from the languages requirement.|
|CDR F - Additional Breadth||3|
|Select from: natural, physical and mathematical sciences (Area B), humanities (Area C), or social sciences (Area D). Cannot be a course from the primary major.|
|Credit Hours Subtotal:||16-32|
See degree audit or a College of Arts and Sciences advisor for approved geography and anthropology courses that apply as natural science.
Language courses numbered 210 or below apply only for the foreign language requirement.
See degree audit or College of Arts and Sciences advisor for list of natural/physical science courses in anthropology, geography, and psychology that do not apply as social science.
Bachelor of Science Only (60 hours)
The bachelor of science degree requires students to complete 60 hours in mathematical, physical and natural sciences. Approved courses for scientific base credit come from the following College of Arts and Sciences disciplines: actuarial science, anthropology (selected courses), astronomy, biochemistry (excluding BIOC 101), biological sciences (excluding BIOS 203), chemistry (excluding CHEM 101), computer science (excluding CSCE 10), geography (selected courses), geology, life sciences, mathematics (excluding courses below MATH 104), meteorology, microbiology, physics and statistics.
See your degree audit or a College of Arts and Sciences advisor for a complete list including individual classes that fall outside of the disciplines listed above. Up to 12 hours of scientific and technical courses offered by other colleges may be accepted toward this requirement with approval of a college advisor.
Foreign Languages/Language Requirement
Languages Exemption Policy
UNL and the College of Arts and Sciences will exempt or waive students from the UNL entrance requirement of two years of the same foreign language or from the College’s language distribution requirement based on documentation only. The following are the options and procedures for documentation:
High School Transcripts
For the University entrance requirement, students must show an official high school transcript with two or more years of the same foreign language.
For the College of Arts and Sciences College Distribution Requirement E-Language, students must show an official high school transcript with four or more years of the same foreign language in high school, or show evidence of graduation from a non-English-speaking foreign high school. Students whose native language is not English must show English as a Second Language study on an official high school transcript. Four years of ESL at the high school level (9th, 10th, 11th and 12th grades) will be the basis for a waiver of the CDR E Language requirement.
Proficiency Examination at UNL
For the University entrance requirement, students who do not have transcript documentation can request to take a proficiency exam in the language. (This is not the same test as the Modern Languages Placement Exam.) However, UNL will provide testing only in the languages it teaches. Currently, these languages are: Arabic, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Czech, Japanese, Chinese.
For the College of Arts and Sciences College Distribution Requirement E-Language, the Department of Modern Languages will oversee the test at the 202 level. If the student passes the test, the department will sign the College Request for Waiver form and indicate the level of proficiency. The form is then forwarded to the Arts and Sciences Advising Center for approval.
The Department of Modern Languages will oversee the test and provide written documentation to the Arts and Sciences Advising Center the level of proficiency passed.
For the University entrance requirement, students without transcript documentation who claim proficiency in a language not taught at UNL, have the option of seeking out a distance education program in languages. If the student completes the equivalent of 102 from an approved distance education program, the student will meet the UNL entrance requirement. The student must have the course work approved before he/she takes/completes the course as equivalent to 102 by a College advisor. The student then completes the course and has the distance education program send the transcript to the Admissions Office.
For the College of Arts and Sciences College Distribution Requirement E-Language, the student can seek out a distance education program and complete the equivalent of the 202-level course. The student must submit the request on the College Request for Substitution form and have the course work approved by a College advisor. The student then completes the course and has the distance education program send the transcript to the Admissions Office.
Third Language Option
If a student demonstrates knowledge of two foreign languages at the 102 level, the College of Arts and Sciences may consider waiving two semesters of the four semester College Distribution Requirement E-Languages requirement. If this waiver were granted, the student would then be required to complete 101 and 102 in another, 3rd foreign language at UNL.
Minimum Hours Required for Graduation
A minimum of 120 semester hours of credit is required for graduation from the College of Arts and Sciences. A total grade point average of at least 2.0 is required.
Restrictions on C- and D Grades
The College will accept no more than 15 semester hours of C- and D grades from other schools except for UNO and UNK. No transfer C- and D grades can be applied toward requirements in a major or a minor. No UNL C- and D grades can be applied toward requirements in a major or a minor.
Pass/No Pass Privilege
University regulations for the Pass/No Pass (P/N) privilege state:
- The Pass/No Pass option is designed for your use by seeking to expand your intellectual horizons by taking courses in areas where you may have had minimal preparation.
- Neither the P nor the N grade contribute to your GPA.
- P is interpreted to mean C or above.
- A change to or from a Pass/No Pass may be made until mid-term (see academic calendar for specific dates per term).
- The Pass/No Pass or grade registration cannot conflict with the policy of the professor, department, college, or University governing the grading option.
- Changing to or from Pass/No Pass requires using the MyRED system to change the grading option or filing a Drop/Add form with the Office of the University Registrar, 107 Canfield Administration Building. After mid-term of the course, a student registered for Pass/No Pass cannot change to a grade registration unless the Pass/No Pass registration is in conflict with the policy of the professor, department, college, or University governing Pass/No Pass.
- The Pass/No Pass grading option cannot be used for the removal of C- or D or F grades.
Pass/No Pass privileges in the College of Arts and Sciences are extended to students according to the following additional regulations:
- Pass/No Pass hours can count toward fulfillment of University ACE requirements and college distribution requirements up to the 24-hour maximum.
- Most Arts and Sciences departments and programs do not allow courses graded Pass/No Pass to apply to the major or minor. Students should refer to the department’s or program’s section of the catalog for clarification. By college rule, departments can allow up to 6 hours of Pass/No Pass in the major or minor.
- Departments may specify that certain courses of theirs can be taken only on a P/N basis.
- The college will permit no more than a total of 24 semester hours of P/N grades to be applied toward degree requirements. This total includes all Pass grades earned at UNL and other U.S. schools. NOTE: This 24-hour limit is more restrictive than the University regulation.
A student who feels that he/she has been unfairly graded must ordinarily take the following sequential steps in a timely manner, usually by initiating the appeal in the semester following the awarding of the grade:
- Talk with the instructor concerned. Most problems are resolved at this point.
- Talk to the instructor’s department chairperson.
- Take the case to the Grading Appeal Committee of the department concerned. The Committee should be contacted through the department chairperson.
- Take the case to the College Grading Appeals Committee by contacting the Dean’s Office, 1223 Oldfather Hall.
Course Level Requirements
Courses Numbered above 299
Thirty of the 120 semester hours of credit must be in courses numbered above 299. Of the 30 hours above 299, 15 hours (1/2) must be completed in residence at UNL.
Seniors in the University who have obtained in advance the approval of the dean for Graduate Studies may receive up to 12 hours credit for graduate courses taken in addition to the courses necessary to complete their undergraduate work, provided that such credits are earned within the calendar year prior to receipt of the baccalaureate. For procedures, inquire at the Office of Graduate Studies.
Course work taken prior to receipt of the baccalaureate may not always be accepted for transfer to other institutions as graduate work.
Residency Requirement and Open Enrollment and Summer Independent Study Courses
Students must complete at least 30 of the 120 total hours for their degree at UNL. Students must complete at least 1/2 of their major course work including 6 hours above 299 in their major, and 15 of the 30 hours required above 299 in residence. Credit earned during education abroad may be used toward the residency requirement if students register through UNL and participate in prior-approved education abroad programs. UNL open enrollment and summer independent study courses count toward residence.
Consistent with the mission and values of the University, ACE is based on a shared set of four institutional objectives and ten student learning outcomes. The ACE program was approved by faculty in all eight undergraduate colleges and endorsed by the Faculty Senate, the student government, and the Academic Planning Committee in January 2008 for implementation in the fall 2009. ACE aligns with current national initiatives in general education.
Key characteristics of ACE demonstrate the benefits of the program to students:
- Students receive a broad education with exposure to multiple disciplines, critical life skills and important reasoning, inquiry, and civic capacities.
- ACE is simple and transparent for students, faculty and advisors. Students complete the equivalent of 3 credit hours for each of the ten student learning outcomes.
- Students connect and integrate their ACE experiences with their selected major.
- Students can transfer all ACE certified courses across colleges within the institution to meet the ACE requirement and any course from outside the institution that is directly equivalent to a UNL ACE-certified course. Courses from outside institutions without direct equivalents may be considered with appropriate documentation for ACE credit (see academic advisor).
ACE allows faculty to assess and improve their effectiveness and facilitate students’ learning.
ACE Institutional Objectives and Student Learning Outcomes
To meet the ACE Program requirement, a student will complete a minimum of 3 credit hours for each of the ten ACE Student Learning Outcomes (a total of 30 ACE credit hours). See the ACE website at: http://ace.unl.edu for the most current information and the most recently certified courses.
Students must fulfill the requirements stated in the catalog for the academic year in which they are first admitted to and enrolled as a degree-seeking student at UNL. In consultation with advisors, a student may choose to follow a subsequent catalog for any academic year in which they are admitted to and enrolled as a degree-seeking student at UNL in the College of Arts and Sciences. Students must complete all degree requirements from a single catalog year. Beginning in 1990-1991 the catalog which a student follows for degree requirements may not be more than 10 years old at the time of graduation.
Majors in biological sciences will be able to:
- Demonstrate mastery of the concepts, principles and knowledge for following subdisciplines: cell biology, organismal biology, genetics, ecology and evolution.
- Use scientific methods and knowledge of the natural and physical world to address biological problems through inquiry, experimentation, interpretation, analysis, and the making of inferences from data, to determine whether conclusions or solutions are reasonable.
- Acquire a more in depth knowledge of in a subdiscipline area by generating a scholarly product that requires broad knowledge, appropriate technical proficiency, information collection, synthesis, interpretation, presentation, and reflection, and is representative of a typical scholarly product for the subdiscipline.
& LIFE 120L
|Fundamentals of Biology I|
and Fundamentals of Biology I laboratory
& LIFE 121L
|Fundamentals of Biology II|
and Fundamentals of Biology II Laboratory
|BIOS 205||Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory||2|
|BIOS 206||General Genetics||4|
|BIOS 207||Ecology and Evolution||4|
|BIOS 99||Assessment of the Major||0|
|Total Credit Hours||18|
Specific Major Requirements
|Additional Biological Sciences Courses|
|Select eighteen (18) hours of BIOS courses, including at least 10 hours at the 300 level or above and at least two courses at the 400 level. 1 2||18|
|Credit Hours Subtotal:||18|
|Total Credit Hours||18|
No more than 8 hours may be from courses for which the home department is other than biological sciences.
|MATH 106||Calculus I||5|
|Select one of the following:||3-4|
|Computer Science I: Informatics Focus|
|Introduction to Statistics|
|Research Methods and Data Analysis|
|Statistics and Applications|
|Credit Hours Subtotal:||8-9|
|Select one sequence from:||7-8|
|General Chemistry I|
and General Chemistry II
| Fundamental Chemistry I|
and Fundamental Chemistry II
|Select one sequence from:||4-5|
|Organic Chemistry I|
and Organic Chemistry I Laboratory
| Biological Organic Chemistry|
and Biological Organic Chemistry Laboratory
| Organic Chemistry|
and Organic Chemistry Laboratory
|Credit Hours Subtotal:||11-13|
|Select one course from:||3|
|Elements of Biochemistry|
or BIOC 431
|Structure and Metabolism|
|Credit Hours Subtotal:||3|
|Select one sequence from:||8-10|
|Elementary General Physics I|
and Elementary General Physics II
| General Physics I|
and General Physics II
|Credit Hours Subtotal:||8-10|
|Total Credit Hours||30-35|
Additional Major Requirements
C- and D Grades
A grade of C or above is required for all courses in the 36 hours for the major (and 18 hours for the minor).
Except for BIOS 310, no course taken Pass/No Pass can be counted toward the 36 hours for the major (and 18 hours for the minor).
Requirements for Minor Offered by Department
Eighteen (18) hours, comprised of the five-course core:
& LIFE 120L
|Fundamentals of Biology I|
and Fundamentals of Biology I laboratory
& LIFE 121L
|Fundamentals of Biology II|
and Fundamentals of Biology II Laboratory
|BIOS 205||Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory||2|
|BIOS 206||General Genetics||4|
|BIOS 207||Ecology and Evolution||4|
|Total Credit Hours||18|
C- and D Grades
A grade of C or above is required for all courses in the 18 hours for the minor (and 36 hours for the major).
Except for BIOS 310 School of Biological Sciences Seminar, no course taken Pass/No Pass can be counted toward the 18 hours for the minor (and 36 hours for the major).
This course does not count towards the biology major. High school chemistry or equivalent strongly recommended. Not intended for most Life Sciences majors; such students should take LIFE 120-LIFE 120L and LIFE 121-LIFE 121L instead.
Description: Analysis of the structure, functions, and interactions of organisms from the molecular to the ecosystem levels. BIOS 101 provides the foundation for tomorrow's citizens to critically think about and evaluate issues in biology.
Description: Introduction to the plant kingdom and to plants as biological organisms; structure and function of cells, tissues, and organs with emphasis on seed plants; the important processes and concepts of classification, inheritance, evolution, and ecology.
Prerequisites: Parallel registration in BIOS 110L.
Description: Introduction to biology with a focus on organization of molecules and cells to the level of human body systems; basic structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) of human tissues, organs and organ systems; reproduction, genetics; DNA technology and genetic engineering.
This course is a prerequisite for: BIOS 110L
Prerequisites: Parallel registration in BIOS 110.
Description: Hands-on lab exercises to understand biological concepts of human organization from molecules to cells to the body systems, basic structure and function of human tissues, organs, organ systems, reproduction, genetics, as well as DNA technology and genetic engineering.
This course is a prerequisite for: BIOS 110
Description: Identification of representative orders and families of insects by their anatomy, metamorphosis, habits and habitats. Sight recognition emphasized but dichotomous keys also used. Interrelation of insect and habitats stressed.
This course is a prerequisite for: FORS 411
Description: Survey of what modern science tells us about the possibilities of life elsewhere in the universe. Topics include how the Earth formed and became suitable for life, how life arose on the Earth, the conditions under which life can thrive, places in the solar system that might support life, the existence of other solar systems that might provide suitable habitats, and attempts to find evidence of life on other planets.
Prerequisites: By permission
Description: Perform original research by using the scientific method to isolate a virus that infects a harmless bacterium (bacteriophage) from local soil samples. Lab skills acquired include pipetting, aseptic technique, and serial dilutions; use basic DNA and electron microscopy analyses to characterize the phage.
This course is a prerequisite for: BIOS 137
Prerequisites: BIOS 136 and by permission.
Description: Build on an original project involving isolation of a virus that infects a harmless bacterium (bacteriophage) using bioinformatic tools to analyze and annotate the sequenced bacteriophage genome.
Description: Introduces the pre-clinical laboratory scientist/medical technologist to the profession of clinical laboratory science. Includes lessons in ethics, organization of the medical team, professionalism, automation, medical terminology, hematology, blood bank, clinical chemistry, and medical microbiology. For students interested in a career in clinical laboratory science/medical technology. BIOS 160 will not count toward a major in biological sciences.
Prerequisites: Good standing in the University Honors Program or by invitation.
University Honors Seminar 189H is required of all students in the University Honors Program.
Description: Topic varies.
Prerequisites: Open to Biological Sciences Learning Community students only
Description: An exploration of biological sciences for undergraduates in the Biological Sciences Learning Community. Topics vary.
Prerequisites: BIOS 206 or parallel
Description: Series of lab exercises to introduce principles of genetic, molecular and cellular biology. Experiments done using model systems to identify, map and clone genes; analyze gene products and expression; and fractionate cell components.
Description: Inheritance and regulation of genes in organisms and populations. Fundamentals of genomics and bioinformatics.
Description: Introduction to the principles and processes of ecology and evolution. Structure and dynamics of populations and communities; biotic and abiotic interactions; mechanisms of evolutionary change; natural selection; adaptation; and speciation.
This course is a prerequisite for: BIOS 472
Description: Elementary survey of the basic functional systems of the human body: the muscular, nervous, receptor, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, endocrine, and reproductive systems.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing.
Cadaver prosections are studied in the lab. Letter Grade Only.
Description: Introduction to the major organ systems of the human body including skeletal, major muscle, nervous, digestive, circulatory, excretory, and reproductive systems. Anatomical structures as they pertain to clinical anatomy.
This course is a prerequisite for: NUTR 384
Description: Plant breeding theory and technique. Application of genetic principles to plant improvement. Experience with breeding agronomic and horticultural plant species to illustrate plant mating systems and breeding principles.
Description: Ecology as a quantitative discipline that integrates the life and earth sciences to understand the dynamics of natural and managed ecosystems.
Description: Provides a broad overview of bioinformatics. Shows how bioinformatics can help solving problems in biological research. Covered topics: biological databases, molecular biology tools, sequence comparison methods, phylogenetic inference, and molecular graphics.
Description: Topic varies.
Prerequisites: 4 hrs BIOS and permission.
A maximum of 3 credit hours may be counted toward the major in BIOS. Before registering, arrangements must be made with a faculty member in BIOS to reach an agreement on the scope and determine the amount of credit for the project.
Description: Opportunity to participate in work in a research laboratory in order to gain some insight into the philosophy and methods of original research.
Prerequisites: One semester BIOS and one semester CHEM
Description: Introduction to the principles of toxicology as they apply to environmental contaminants, agri-chemicals, and industrial and naturally occurring chemicals.
Description: Molecular biology of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Review of the experimental basis for the principles of the discipline.
Description: Microbial cell structure, genetics, metabolic and biosynthetic activity, diversity, ecology and evolution including host-microbe interactions.
Description: Microbiology techniques which include recombinant DNA methods used in industry, medicine and research.
Description: Traditional microbiology techniques without recombinant DNA methods.
Description: Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, early development of a number of vertebrates, and the development of specific organ systems. Includes a three-hour lab in which the morphological aspects of development are illustrated on slides and in which some modern techniques used in experimental mammalian development are introduced.
Description: Introduction to biological literature, applied mathematics, computer programming, and/or statistical techniques relevant to particular questions in ecology, evolution, and behavior. Typical mathematical topics include discrete dynamics, systems of differential equations, matrix algebra, or statistical inference and probability.
Field trips are required and may occur outside of scheduled class time.
Description: Introduction to the basic principles and concepts of the biology of plants. Adaptive variation and biodiversity of plants considering the relationships of plant structure to function integrating across succeeding levels of organization: molecule, cell, tissue, organism, organism, population, community, and ecosystem.
Prerequisites: BIOS 206; one year general chemistry and one semester organic chemistry
Description: Fundamental concepts in virology including basic features of structure, evolution, diseases, replication cycles and virus-host interactions.
Description: Emphasis on parasitic diseases of humans. Impact of parasitism on societies considered in addition to the clinical consequences for infected individuals. Means of transmission, diagnosis, and treatment considered in respect to recent technological advances in production of monoclonal antibodies and genetic engineering. Nature and biological significance of parasitism are viewed in terms of prospects for control.
Description: A combination of academic work and instruction in the anatomy or physiology laboratories in biological sciences: cadaver dissection or work with physiological equipment; assist in the instruction of anatomical and physiological concepts. Open only to students who expect to become teaching assistants in anatomy or physiology
Prerequisites: PSYC 273 OR PSYC 373/BIOS 373
Description: Critical reading and discussion of literature on topics dealing with the biological bases of behavior.
Description: Combination of work outside the University and academic work in biological sciences arranged through the Career Services Office. Specifics of requirements to be arranged with supervising faculty member. BIOS 395 will not count toward a major in BIOS.
Prerequisites: Enrollment in the biological sciences honors program
Description: Special topics in biology.
Prerequisites: Open to candidates for degrees with distinction or enrollment in the biological sciences honors program.
Description: Independent research leading to an honors thesis and exam in accordance with the College's degrees with distinction procedure.
Description: Principles of cancer genetics, cancer prevention, and new methods for diagnosis and therapy. Fundamentals of the cell and molecular events that lead to human cancer.
Description: Regulation and timing of macromolecular synthesis during the cell cycle; the genetic autonomy of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Description: Microscopic anatomy of the tissues and organs of major vertebrate species, including humans. Normal cellular arrangements of tissues and organs as related to their macroscopic anatomy and function, with reference to sub-cellular characteristics and biochemical processes. Functional relationships among cells, tissues, organs and organ systems, contributory to organismal well being. General introduction to pathological processes and principles underlying some diseases.
Description: Genetic basis of human variation, with emphasis on methods of applying genetic principles to humankind. Genetic ratios in pooled data; population and quantitative genetics; consanguinity; polygenic inheritance; blood types; sex linkage; linkage and crossing over; sex determination; visible chromosome variation; mutation; heredity and environment; eugenics; anthropological genetics; molecular genetics and molecular basis of disease; human genome project.
Description: Survey of topics in developmental biology, both animal and plant development.
Description: Basic conservation science theory and conservation decision making tools which are essential for making effective decisions for biodiversity conservation. Topics include systematic conservation planning, population viability analysis, risk assessment, and applying those tools to real conservation problems.
Description: In-depth study of the principles and methodology of genetics, with emphasis on Drosophila: multiple alleles and complex loci, linkage and recombination, chromosome rearrangements, fine structure analysis, sex determination, recombinant DNA, and gene function in development.
Prerequisites: PSYC 273 or PSYC 373 or BIOS 373.
Description: Relationship of physiological variables to behavior, an introduction to laboratory techniques in neuropsychology.
Description: Diversity of microbial cell composition, structure, and function enabling movement, metabolism, symbiosis, and adaptation using bacterial, fungal, algal, and viral examples. A physiological, biochemical and molecular approach used throughout.
Prerequisites: BIOS 213
Description: Comprehensive survey of comparative physiology with emphasis on the diversity of adaptations in basic physiological systems and the effects of environmental parameters upon such systems. Comparative physiology of osmoregulation, temperature regulation, metabolism, muscle, central nervous function, and sensory function.
Prerequisites: Co-enrollment with BIOS 422
Letter grade only.
Description: Physiological adaptations in ecological and evolutionary context.
Description: Introduction to the use of plants for basic and applied purposes by deliberate manipulation of their genomes; techniques in plant genetic engineering; manipulations of plant development and metabolism; engineering pest, disease, and stress resistance; plants as bioreactors; and environmental and social impacts of plant biotechnology.
Description: Fundamentals of the analysis of high throughput experiments to understand complex biological systems. Principles and methods such as next generation sequencing, protein-protein interaction networks, regulatory networks, and biological data mining and integration. Emerging research in new biotechnology and data analysis in biomedical and life sciences.
Prerequisites: BIOS 206 or equivalent.
Description: Basic knowledge and skills needed for general bioinformatics, genomics and proteomics analyses. Various computational analyses including database search, sequence alignment, phylogenetic reconstruction, gene prediction/mining, microarray data analyses and protein structure analyses.
Prerequisites: BIOS 207 and Senior standing
Description: Principles of phylogenetic inference and emphasis on the application of phylogenetic hypotheses in biology and the biomedical sciences. How inferences derived from phylogenetic trees can be applied in different areas of biological investigation including systematics, biogeography, conservation biology, molecular evolution, genome structure, epidemiology, population biology, ecology, character evolution, behavior, and macroevolution.
First course of a two-semester, comprehensive biochemistry course sequence.
Description: Structure and function of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids; nature of enzymes; major metabolic pathways of catabolism; and biochemical energy production.
This course is a prerequisite for: VBMS 410
Continuation of BIOC 431/831.
Description: Major metabolic pathways of anabolism, structural and biochemical aspects of biological information flow and use in biotechnology.
Description: Introduction to techniques used in biochemical and biotechnology research, including measurement of pH, spectroscopy, analysis of enzymes, chromatography, fractionation of macromolecules, electrophoresis, and centrifugation.
Prerequisites: BIOC/BIOS/CHEM 431/831.
Description: Biochemical metabolism unique to plants. Relationships of topics previously acquired in general biochemistry to biochemical processes unique to plants. Biochemical mechanisms behind physiological processes discussed in plant or crop physiology.
Prerequisites: 12 hrs GEOL or BIOS.
Description: Analysis and interpretation of the Quaternary period's paleoecological data. Patterns of long-term climate variation. Distribution patterns and responses of organisms and ecosystems to Quaternary environmental change.
Prerequisites: BIOC/BIOS/CHEM 433/833, or permission
Description: Methods approach to systems biology analysis. Molecular identification and quantification employing techniques such as mass spectrometry, chromatography, electrophoretic fractionation, transcriptomics, protemics and metabolomics. Data and pathway analysis with computational methods.
Prerequisites: BIOS 312 and either 313 or 314, or permission
Description: Molecular approaches to the study of prokaryotic cell structure and physiology, including growth, cell division, metabolism, and alternative microbial life styles.
Prerequisites: BIOS 312 and either 313 or 314, or permission.
Description: Fundamental principles involved in host-microorganism interrelationships. Identification of pathogens, isolation, propagation, mode of transmission, pathogenicity, symptoms, treatment, prevention of disease, epidemiology, and methods of control.
Prerequisites: A course in vertebrate physiology and/or biochemistry.
Description: Mammalian endocrine glands from the standpoint of their structure, their physiological function in relation to the organism, the chemical nature and mechanisms of action of their secretory products, and the nature of anomalies manifested with their dysfunction.
Prerequisites: BIOS 206 and one semester organic chemistry
Description: Fundamental consideration of cellular and humoral mechanisms of immunity, the structure and function of immunoglobulins, antigen-antibody interactions; hypersensitivity; transplantation and tumor immunity; immune and autoimmune disorders.
This course is a prerequisite for: VBMS 910
Prerequisites: 3 hours biological sciences and 3 hours chemistry.
Description: Lectures and discussions of primary literature regarding microorganisms and their role transforming Earth through geologic time.
Description: Nature, physiology, and interactions of microorganisms in foods. Introduction to food-borne diseases, the effect of food processing systems on the microflora of foods, principles of food preservation, food spoilage, and foods produced by microorganisms. Food plant sanitation and criteria for establishing microbial standards for food products.
Prerequisites: One semester microbiology; one semester biochemistry or organic chemistry.
Description: Soil from a microbe's perspective-growth, activity and survival strategies; principles governing methods to study microorganisms and biochemical processes in soil; mechanisms controlling organic matter cycling and stabilization with reference to C, N, S, and P; microbial interactions with plants and animals; and agronomic and environmental applications of soil microorganisms.
Description: Biological diversity from an evolutionary perspective. The history of the study of human physical growth and biological principles of growth. Genetic, epigenetic and hormonal effects on human and other mammal growth patterns, and environmental factors that influence growth. Effects of nutrition, disease, socio-economic status, pollution, etc. Unique features of human growth in its various stages. How anthropologists interpret variation in growth patterns among human populations and the possible adaptive significance of this variation.
Description: Conservation and management of native and invasive predators. Functional and numerical responses. Evolution of predator-prey interactions. Optimal foraging. Modeling predator-prey population dynamics. Trophic cascades. Prey defenses against predation.
Description: Nature and characteristics of populations and communities. Interactions within and between populations in community structure and dynamics. Direct and indirect interactions and ecological processes, competition, predation, parasitism, herbivory, and pollination. Structure, functioning and persistence of natural communities, foodweb dynamics, succession, and biodiversity.
Description: Biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems, are analyzed using mathematical techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of mathematical approaches to biological questions. Brief review of college level math; introduction to modeling; oscillating systems in biology; randomness in biology; review of historically important and currently popular models in biology.
Description: Physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in wetlands; the hydrology and soils of wetland systems; organisms occurring in wetlands and their ecology wetland creation, delineation, management and ecotoxicology.
Prerequisites: 12 hrs BIOS, including BIOS/NRES 220/BIOS220x; two semesters CHEM.
Description: Physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur in fresh water. Organisms occurring in fresh water and their ecology; biological productivity of water and its causative factors; eutroplication and its effects.
Description: Introduction to animal behavior stressing the ethological approach. Anatomical and physiological bases of behavior, ontogenetic and phylogenetic observations, and the relations of animal behavior studies to genetics, ecology, taxonomy, and evolution.
Prerequisites: BIOS/NRES 489/889 or equivalent.
Description: Biology of fishes. Factors that affect fishes in the natural environment. Techniques used in the analysis and management of fish populations.
Description: Behavior of animals. Stresses methods for testing evolutionary hypotheses under field conditions with emphasis on foraging behavior, animal communication, and animal social systems.
Prerequisites: BIOS 207 or equivalent.
Description: Structure, function, and distribution of communities. Interaction of different species with their biotic and abiotic environments.
Description: Overview of the diversity of plants and algae, with emphasis on phylogenetic relationships, the evolution of important physical and genomic characteristics, principles of plant classification and identification, and modern methods of plant molecular systematics. Lab work on taxonomic analysis and plant identification.
Prerequisites: BIOS 207 and Senior standing
Description: The principles and processes of micro- and macroevolution. Mechanisms behind evolutionary change and examples of these processes in a wide variety of organisms.
May also be offered at Cedar Point Biological Station.
Description: Biology of birds emphasizing the behavior and ecology of this group. Topics include avian diversity, systematics & evolutionary history, flight, foraging, migration, communication, reproductive biology, population ecology and conservation biology.
Prerequisites: Parallel BIOS 475/875 and permission
An immersive field biology experience at Cedar Point Biological Station.
Description: Avian field identification in diverse prairie, riparian, and montane habitats. Individual studies of foraging behavior, territoriality, anti-predator behavior, mating systems, or nesting ecology.
May also be offered at Cedar Point Biological Station. Field trips are required and may occur outside of scheduled class time. Lab and field time emphasize diversity of mammalian families and species identification of Nebraska mammals.
Description: Evolution, natural history, ecology, and functional morphology of planetary mammals and mammals of the Northern Great Plains.
Description: Pairwise and multiple alignments, sequence similarity and domain search, distance estimation, phylogenetic methods, gene mining, protein classification and structure. Algorithms used in bioinformatics as well as fundamental concepts of molecular evolution that underlie various bioinformatics methods.
Prerequisites: 8 hrs biological sciences, BIOS 109 recommended.
Description: Development, structure, and function of tissues and organs of the higher plants. Relationships of structure to physiology and ecology of plants.
Prerequisites: NRES 222 or equivalent
Description: Fundamental physical drivers operating in stream and river ecosystems and how those vary in space and time. Major classes of organisms associated with stream ecosystems and their functional roles. Fundamental controls on biotic diversity in stream and river ecosystems and its variance. Major aspects of stream ecosystem function including energy flow and nutrient cycling. Ecosystem services provided by stream and river ecosystems and causes and consequences of human impacts on streams and rivers. Underlying principles of bioassessment and current methods of stream restoration.
Prerequisites: 12 hrs biological sciences.
Description: Field course in insect taxonomy and biology emphasizing field collection, specimen preparation, classification, and insect natural history.
Prerequisites: 12 hrs biological sciences.
Description: Biology and ecology of aquatic insects.
Prerequisites: CHEM 471/871 or 481/881.
Description: Applications of thermodynamics to biochemical phenomena, optical properties of proteins and polynucleotides, and kinetics of rapid reactions.
Four credit hours may be counted toward the undergraduate BIOS major. Before registering, arrangements must be made with a School of Biological Sciences faculty member to reach an agreement on the scope and to determine the amount of credit for the project.
Description: Independent study and laboratory or field investigation of a specific problem.
This document represents a sample 4-year plan for degree completion with this major. Actual course selection and sequence may vary and should be discussed individually with your college or department academic advisor. Advisors also can help you plan other experiences to enrich your undergraduate education such as internships, education abroad, undergraduate research, learning communities, and service learning and community-based learning.
Biological Sciences (B.S.)
- A minimum 2.00 GPA required for graduation.
- ***Total Credits Applying Toward 120 Total Hours***
- Complete 30 hours in residence at UNL.
The following represents a sample of the internships, jobs and graduate school programs that current students and recent graduates have reported.
- Comprehend and critically evaluate complex information
- Use quantitative analytical computational techniques
- Make predictions using mathematical, statistical, and scientific modeling methods
- Understand and use proper laboratory and technical skills and instruments
- Define problems and identifying causes
Jobs of Recent Graduates
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- Beckman Research Scholar, UNL College of Arts Sciences Beckman Scholars - Lincoln NE
- Optician, Shopko Optical - Lincoln NE
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