Prerequisites: Junior standing, MATH 106 or equivalent, 5 hrs physics, major in any of the physical or biological sciences or engineering; or permission.
Description: Physical factors that create the biological environment. Radiation and energy balances of earth's surfaces, terrestrial and marine. Temperature, humidity, and wind regimes near the surface. Control of the physical environment through irrigation, windbreaks, frost protection, manipulation of light, and radiation. Applications to air pollution research. Instruments for measuring environmental conditions and remote sensing of the environment.
Description: Development of the atmospheric circulation regimes, from planetary scale (e.g., the planetary waves) to synoptic scale (e.g., the cyclones and anticyclones) and mesoscale, their seasonal variations, and their roles in horizontal vertical energy and water transport and budgets in the Earth system.
Description: Buoyancy and parcel mixing, cloud physics instrumentation, the role of aerosols in precipitation processes, growth of liquid cloud droplets/raindrops/ice crystals, processes associated with falling precipitation particles, drop size distributions and their moments, applications to convection, and parameterizations of cloud microphysical processes for numerical modeling applications.
Prerequisites: 6 hrs. METR and CHEM 109.
Description: Basic processes (e.g., emission, transport, first-order chemical reaction, and deposition) associated with air pollution and their combination with meteorology for air quality forecasting. Environmental topics: acid rain; smog; air pollution; ozone hole; greenhouse gases; aerosols; long-range transport; civic regulations and international treaties on air pollution; and climate change.
Description: Basic concepts of atmospheric turbulence and fundamental dynamics, thermodynamics, and structure of the atmospheric boundary layer are discussed. Atmospheric boundary layer parameterizations used in modern weather and climate models are presented.
Prerequisites: METR 205
Description: Dynamic and thermodynamic concepts and principles applied to synoptic-scale weather forecasting. Dynamics, energetics, structure, evolution, and motion of extra-tropical cyclones. Meteorological communications, interpretation and analysis of weather maps, and thermodynamic diagrams.
Prerequisites: METR 341.
Description: Analysis and forecasting of subsynoptic-scale weather systems. Convection, thunderstorm models, severe local storm forecasting techniques, mesoscale convective complexes, vertical cross-sections, isentropic analysis, and weather radar.
This course is a prerequisite for: METR 944
Description: Dynamics of various types of severe weather (blizzards, flash floods, lightning, thunderstorms and winter and summer tornado outbreaks). Interpretation of the numerical and statistical models utilized to forecast these phenomena. Synoptic case studies of severe weather occurrences. Recent research on severe weather.
Prerequisites: METR 311
Description: Dynamics and conceptual models of mesoscale meteorological phenomena and processes.
Prerequisites: 6 hrs METR and MATH 107/107H.
Description: Application of univariate statistics, hypothesis testing, statistical forecasting, forecast verification, time-series analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster/multivariate analysis to atmospheric data for different applications in the atmospheric sciences (from short-term weather forecast to long-term climate prediction).
This course is a prerequisite for: METR 965
Prerequisites: METR 323.
Description: The fundamental principles of weather radars and the basic application of these principles.
Prerequisites: METR 223.
Description: Concepts and principles related to meteorological observations from satellites. Applications for weather analysis and forecasting.
Prerequisites: METR 323
Description: Principles of atmospheric radiation and techniques for satellite image processing. Application of data calibration, image registration and enhancement, noise filtering and multi-spectral classification of satellite images. Survey of various satellite sensors used for monitoring different atmospheric processes and constituents.
Prerequisites: Junior standing; MATH 106; 4 hrs physics; physical or biological science major.
Description: Discussion and practical application of principles and practices of measuring meteorological and related variables near the earth's surface including temperature, humidity, precipitation, pressure, radiation and wind. Performance characteristics of sensors and modern data collection methods are discussed and evaluated.
Description: Maintenance of the climate system and climate change over time. Global budgets of energy, water, and momentum and their balance. Development of simple, physically-based models of climate and of climate change.
Prerequisites: METR 205.
Description: Global energy and water balance regimes of the earth and its atmosphere. Utilization of physical laws to reveal causes and effects of interrelationships in the climatic system.
Prerequisites: NRES/METR 370.
Description: Regional differentiation of the climates of the earth on both a descriptive and dynamic basis. The chief systems of climatic classification.
Offered spring semester of even-numbered calendar years.
Description: Interaction between earth's climate and the hydrologic cycle. Energy and water fluxes at the land-atmosphere interface. Atmospheric moisture transport, precipitation, evaporation, snowmelt, and runoff. Impacts of climate variability and change on the hydrologic cycle.
Description: Elements of climate systems, El Nino/LaNina cycle and monsoons, natural variability of climate on interannual and interdecadal scales. Paleoclimate, and future climate, developed climate change scenarios and climate change impacts on natural resources and the environment.
Prerequisites: 6 hrs METR or 6 hrs GEOL.
Description: How the Earth's climate has varied and the forcing mechanisms related to those changes. Themes that reappear through Earth's climate history and into the future; causes of climate change; the natural response times of the multiple components; and the role of greenhouse gases within the climate system at differing time scales.
Description: Application of meteorology-climatology learning with on-the-job training.
Prerequisites: METR 423/823; MATH 221/221H/821; and permission
Description: Theory of scattering by atmospheric particles (e.g., clouds, aerosols, and molecules), atmospheric radiative transfer equations, and techniques for solving these equations. Atmospheric transfer of both solar and terrestrial radiation. Numerical experiments with radiative transfer models and comparison with observations.
Prerequisites: METR 433/833, or equivalent
Description: Investigate the physical processes involved in land-atmosphere interactions, focusing on the coupling between land surfaces (especially the soil and vegetation cover) and the atmospheric boundary layer.
Prerequisites: METR 411/811 and 412/812, or equivalent
Description: Advanced concepts related to severe convective storms. Tornado-genesis, super-cell formation, rotation, movement, morphology, quasi-linear convective systems, deep convective initiation, hail, mesoscale convective systems, and RKW (Rotunno-Klemp-Weisman) theory.
Prerequisites: METR 842 or equivalent
Description: Advanced theoretical background in synoptic meteorology, and opportunities to apply these concepts to real-world problems. Topics include the quasi-geostrophic equations, static stability effects, midlatitude cyclones, upper-level waves, frontogenesis, semi-geostrophic theory, potential vorticity, and IPV thinking.
Description: Hands-on signal processing experience designed to build understanding of radar signal processing methods and radar data limitations. Topics include propagation of radiation, pulse modulation, application of the radar equations, signal statistics and Fourier methods, advanced methods to gather atmospheric data using radar and radar polarimetry.
Description: Climates of the past emphasizing the Quaternary period. Palegeographic changes in response to climatic fluctuations. Techniques for recording and reconstructing past climatic variations. Modeling the changing climate. Climatic changes and human affairs.