Division Chair

Barbara Berg, LVT, Assistant Professor

Faculty

Ricky Sue Barnes Wach, D.V.M, Professor
Judy Bowmaster Cole, LVT, Assistant Professor
Glenn Jackson, D.V.M., Assistant Professor

Veterinary Technology Mission

The Veterinary Technology Systems division is dedicated to the development of innovative individuals for careers in the animal health industry. The focus of the Veterinary Technology Associate of Applied Science degree is to provide the hands-on skills and academic background needed for graduates to accept and be successful in career opportunities within the animal health industry, be lifelong learners and involved community members. NCTA maintains a wide variety of animals to provide the students with a consistent and broad background of experience.

ASSOCIATE OF APPLIED SCIENCE DEGREE OPTIONS

  • Veterinary Technician Option
    • Eligible to sit for the Veterinary Technician National Exam (VTNE) and become a licensed
  • Veterinary Assistant Option
  • Animal Husbandry Option
  • Animal Health Management Option
  • Equine Health Care Option

Certificates

  • Animal Health Care Certificate
  • Laboratory Animal Care Certificate
    • This curriculum helps prepare you to become a certified laboratory animal technician, caring for animals and supporting professionals at institutions looking to solve a multitude of medical problems, like cancer and diabetes, that affect millions of people and animals all over the world.

Associate of Applied Science-Veterinary Technician Option

The focus of NCTA’s Associate of Applied Science, Veterinary Technician Option is to provide the hands-on skills and academic background needed to accept career opportunities as an entry level veterinary technician. The program is American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited with the curriculum based around the AVMA essential tasks and skill list. Veterinary Technology – Technician Option graduates are qualified to sit for the VTNE and become a licensed Veterinary Technician. NCTA maintains a wide variety of animals to provide the students with a consistent and broad background of experience.  The program requires structured classes covering AVMA essential skills, an 8 week internship, passing the exit exam and a CGPA of 80%.

Veterinary Technician Option Entrance Requirements

Observation hours
Observation hours are a prerequisite for Facility Management class.  Incoming students need to spend 80 hours observing or working with technicians and veterinarians in a veterinary practice.  We want prospective technicians to know the work and hours that go into caring for the animals people love and care for.   Most clinics are very happy to let you observe once you explain that you are pursuing veterinary technology as a career. 

Background classes
A strong background in math and science is recommended.

ACT Score
An ACT Score of 18 or higher is recommended to enroll in and complete the Veterinary Assistant or the Technician Option Honors Program in two years. With an ACT score of less than 18, it is recommended that students plan to complete the program in 3 years. The Animal Husbandry, Equine Health, and Animal Health Management Option are open to all students and can be completed in 2 years.

Veterinary Technologist

A baccalaureate degree as a Veterinary Technologist can be pursued through a collaborative effort with NCTA’s Veterinary Technician Option Degree and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Students interested should inform their advisor of their intent upon initial registration.

Final Assessment – Veterinary Technician Option - Exit Exam

The Exit Exam is one required criteria for the Veterinary Technician Option. At the end of the student’s last spring semester session, the Veterinary Technician Exit Exam is offered. To be eligible to take this exam the Vet Tech student must be able to have successfully completed (with the exception of internship) all required credit hours by the end of the semester. The entire comprehensive examination must be passed with an average grade of 70% or better and each section must be passed with a minimum grade of 60% or higher. A maximum of two sections may be repeated during the provided repeat time. Each student must complete the required classes, have a CGPA of 80% and pass the Exit Exam to graduate with the Veterinary Technician Option.

Final Assessment – Veterinary Assistant

Upon successful completion of the Veterinary Assistant Option students will be able to demonstrate the academic background needed to enter the work force as an entry level assistant.  This is assessed through the VT Exit Exam.  The Exit exam is taken at the same time as Technician Option students but without passing grade requirements

Final Assessment - Veterinary Technology Animal Husbandry, Animal Health Care Management, Equine Healthcare

The 200 question written comprehensive final assessment is administered at the end of student’s last on-campus semester/session.

Veterinary Technology Handbook

All Veterinary Technology students should read the Veterinary Technology Student Handbook that can be found on the NCTA web page.

Veterinary Technician Option and Licensing

 To be eligible to work as or to refer to yourself as a veterinary technician in Nebraska, one must graduate from an AVMA accredited Veterinary Technology Program (Technician Option), pass the VTNE, and become licensed with the state. Each student must complete the required 76 credit hours of classes, have a CGPA of 80% and pass the exit exam to graduate with the Veterinary Technician Option (add) and be eligible to become a licensed technician.

Veterinary Technician Option-Associate of applied science

Plan of Study Grid
First Year
FallCredit Hours
Complete Requirements 18-20
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY  
ANIMAL CARE  
FUR AND FEATHER  
INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE  
LEARNING COMMUNITIES  
MATH FOR VET TECHS (or another college level math class)  
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY  
FACILITY MANAGEMENT(Or Science)  
GENERAL BIOLOGY (or ASI 1024-Fund Animal Bio; or BIO 1313 Plant Science; or CHM 1014 Intro to Chem I)
or GENERAL CHEM I
 
 Credit Hours20
Spring
Complete Requiements 17-19
PRODUCTION ANIMALS I  
PHARMACY-ANESTHESIA  
RADIOLOGY I  
NURSING I  
INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY SCIENCE  
SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY  
FACILITY MANAGEMENT(Or Science)  
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY I (or ASI 1024; BIO 1313; CHM 1014; CHM 1104; BIO 1104)  
 Credit Hours18
Summer
Complete Requirments 8-11
RADIOLOGY II  
SALES COMM (Sales Comm)  
PARASITOLOGY  
Nutrition (Equine, Canine, Livestock)
 
 Credit Hours10
Second Year
Fall
Complete Requirements 18
LARGE ANIMAL TECHNIQUES  
NURSING II  
ANESTHESIOLOGY  
HEMATOLOGY  
DISEASES OF VET MED  
CLINICAL PRACTICES
or COLLEGE COMP
 
BUSINESS & TECHNICAL WRITING
or COLLEGE COMP
 
 Credit Hours18
Spring
Complete Requirements 12
CAREER STRATEGIES  
CLINICAL PATHOLOGY  
SURGERY PREPARATION ( )  
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS FOR LEADERSHIP  
Exit Exam  
2nd 8 Weeks  
VETERINARY TECHNOLOGY INTERNSHIP  
 Credit Hours12
 Total Credit Hours78

Students with ACT Less Than 18 will need to take:

ENG 103INTRODUCTION TO COLLEGE READING AND WRITING3
and complete the program over 3 years instead of 2 years, taking 12 to 15 hours each semester

Veterinary Assistant Option-Associate of applied science

Plan of Study Grid
First Year
FallCredit Hours
Complete Requirements 18-20
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY  
ANIMAL CARE  
FUR AND FEATHER  
INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE  
LEARNING COMMUNITIES  
MATH FOR VET TECHS (Or other college level math)  
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY  
FACILITY MANAGEMENT (or Science)  
 Credit Hours18
Spring
Complete Requirements 17-19
PRODUCTION ANIMALS I  
PHARMACY-ANESTHESIA  
RADIOLOGY I  
NURSING I  
INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY SCIENCE  
SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY  
FACILITY MANAGEMENT (or Science)  
 Credit Hours19
Summer
Complete Requirements 11
RADIOLOGY II  
SALES COMM  
PARASITOLOGY  
Nutrition (Equine, Canine, Livestock)  
 Credit Hours11
Second Year
Fall
Complete Requirements 18
LARGE ANIMAL TECHNIQUES  
NURSING II  
HEMATOLOGY  
ANESTHESIOLOGY  
DISEASES OF VET MED  
CLINICAL PRACTICES  
BUSINESS & TECHNICAL WRITING (Business & Technical Writing)
or COLLEGE COMP
 
 Credit Hours18
Spring
Complete Requirements 12
CAREER STRATEGIES  
CLINICAL PATHOLOGY  
SURGERY PREPARATION  
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS FOR LEADERSHIP  
2nd 8 Weeks  
VETERINARY TECHNOLOGY INTERNSHIP  
 Credit Hours12
 Total Credit Hours78

Animal Husbandry Option-Associate of Applied Science

Associate of Applied Science Core
Complete Requirements20
LEARNING COMMUNITIES
MATH FOR VET TECHS
COLLEGE ALGEBRA
SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY
SALES COMM
SPEECH
BUSINESS & TECHNICAL WRITING
COLLEGE COMP
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS FOR LEADERSHIP
Biology or Chemistry
Veterinary Technology Courses and Internship7-8
RADIOLOGY I
RADIATION SAFETY
FACILITY MANAGEMENT
EQUINE PRACTICUM I
VETERINARY TECHNOLOGY INTERNSHIP
CAREER STRATEGIES
Veterinary Technology Classes (advisor guided)30-32
VT or APS Advisory guided classes14
Electives3
Credit Hours Subtotal: 76
Total Credit Hours76

Students with ACT Less Than 18 will need to take:

ENG 103INTRODUCTION TO COLLEGE READING AND WRITING3

Equine Health Option-Associate of Applied Science

Plan of Study Grid
First Year
FallCredit Hours
VTS 1511 INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE 1
PSY 1011 LEARNING COMMUNITIES 1
VTS 1313 MATH FOR VET TECHS 3
VTS 1301 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 1
VTS 1404 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 4
ASI 1501 EQUINE SAFETY 1
ASI 1442 EQUINE PRACTICUM I 2
VTE 1643 EQUINE HEALTH RECORDS 3
 Credit Hours16
Spring
VTS 1521 PRODUCTION ANIMALS I 1
VTS 1713 PHARMACY-ANESTHESIA 3
VTS 1822 RADIOLOGY I 2
VTS 1603 INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY SCIENCE 3
VTE 2611 EQUINE REPRODUCTION 1
AED 1023 INTERPERSONAL SKILLS FOR LEADERSHIP 3
AIT 1003 SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY 3
 Credit Hours16
Summer
VTE 2623 FEEDING THE EQUINE PATIENT 3
SPC 1113
SPEECH
or SALES COMM
3
 Credit Hours6
Second Year
Fall
VTS 2533 LARGE ANIMAL TECHNIQUES 3
ENG 1503
BUSINESS & TECHNICAL WRITING
or COLLEGE COMP
3
VTE 1633 EQUINE DISEASES 3
VTE 1623 EQUINE LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS 3
ACT 1103 ACCOUNTING I 3
ASI 2433 EQUINE INDUS MNGT I 3
 Credit Hours18
Spring
VTE 2613 EQUINE SURGERY AND ANESTHESIA 3
VTE 2643 EQUINE NURSING 3
BIO 1313 PLANT SCIENCE (or ASI 1024; or CHM 1014) 3
VTS 2241 CAREER STRATEGIES 1
Electives 6
Choose 5 elective Credit hours from below over four semesters:  
RANCH HORSE I  
EQUINE INDUS MNGT II  
NUTRITION  
EQUINE MARKETING TECHNIQUES  
SPANISH FOR VET TECH,SPANISH FOR ANIMAL HEALTH  
ULTRASOUND  
BASIC EQUITATION  
PARASITOLOGY  
RADIOLOGY II  
CONCEPTS IN BITS  
THE WORLD OF WORK  
VTS 1532
 
 Credit Hours16
Summer
VTS 2243 VETERINARY TECHNOLOGY INTERNSHIP 3
 Credit Hours3
 Total Credit Hours75

Students with ACT Less Than 18 will take:

ENG 103INTRODUCTION TO COLLEGE READING AND WRITING3

Animal Health management option- Associate of applied science

76 Credit Hours

College Core
ENG 1903COLLEGE COMP3
or ENG 1503 BUSINESS & TECHNICAL WRITING
SPC 1103SALES COMM3
or SPC 1113 SPEECH
MTH 1503COLLEGE ALGEBRA3
or VTS 1313 MATH FOR VET TECHS
AIT 1003SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY3
PSY 1011LEARNING COMMUNITIES1
AED 1023INTERPERSONAL SKILLS FOR LEADERSHIP3
Select One Science Course from: 4
FUND OF ANIMAL BIO
GENERAL BIOLOGY
GENERAL CHEM I
AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY
PLANT SCIENCE
INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY I
Credit Hours Subtotal: 20
Internship
VTS 2243VETERINARY TECHNOLOGY INTERNSHIP3
Credit Hours Subtotal: 3
Veterinary Technology Courses
VTS 1301MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY1
VTE 2322INTRO TO VET OFFICE2
VTE 2821RADIATION SAFETY1
VTS 2241CAREER STRATEGIES1
VTS 1603INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY SCIENCE3
Credit Hours Subtotal: 8
Select One Nutrition Class
Total Requirements: 2-3
EQUINE NUTRITION
NUTRITION
HILLS NUTRITION
CANINE & FELINE NUTRITION
Credit Hours Subtotal: 2-3
Select 13-14 Credit hours from the following:
Total Requirements: 13-14
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
ANIMAL CARE
FUR AND FEATHER
PRODUCTION ANIMALS I
FACILITY MANAGEMENT
PHARMACY-ANESTHESIA
RADIOLOGY I
DISEASES OF VET MED
SPANISH FOR VET TECH,SPANISH FOR ANIMAL HEALTH
Credit Hours Subtotal: 13-14
Complete the following Business Managment Courses:
ACT 1103ACCOUNTING I3
MGT 2103MGT CONCEPTS3
ACT 1203ACCOUNTING II3
MGT 2503HUMAN RESOURCES MGT3
Credit Hours Subtotal: 12
Select 12 Credit hours from the following Business Mgt Courses
Total Requirement: 12
PERSONAL FINANCE
AG FINANCE
PUBLIC RELATIONS
FARM & RANCH MANAGEMENT
MICROECONOMICS
MACROECONOMICS
AGRICULTURAL DECISION ANALYSIS
RETAIL MARKETING
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
GRAPHIC DESIGN
WEB DESIGN
Credit Hours Subtotal: 12
Select 5 Credit hours from the following Production Ag and Vet Tech Courses:
Total Requirement5
EQUINE SAFETY
ANIMAL MANAGEMENT
FEEDS & FEEDING
LIVESTOCK BREEDING
EQUINE HEALTH RECORDS
EQUINE EMERGENCY MEDICINE AND NURSING
EQUINE DISEASES
EQUINE SURGERY AND ANESTHESIA
EQUINE LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS
EQUINE NURSING
ULTRASOUND
Credit Hours Subtotal: 5

Animal Care Certificate

Select 12 hours from the following:12
EQUINE SAFETY
INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE
BASIC DOG GROOMING
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
ANIMAL CARE
ANIMAL CARE
DOG TRAINING
INTRO TO VET OFFICE
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
MATH FOR VET TECHS
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
FACILITY MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY SCIENCE
Total Credit Hours12

Laboratory Animal Care Certificate

VTL 1113LABORATORY ANIMAL MEDICINE I3
VTL 1122LABORATORY ANIMAL MEDICINE II2
VTL 1133LABORATORY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT3
VTS 1262LABORATORY ANIMAL INTERNSHIP2
VTS 1301MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY1
VTS 1313MATH FOR VET TECHS3
VTS 1603INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY SCIENCE3
VTS 2563FUR AND FEATHER3
Total Credit Hours20
VTE21
S.T.A.R.S
Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE1021
BASIC DOG GROOMING

Description: (Lab 1 hr) Identification of plant pests, including morphology and life cycles of selected insects, weeds, and diseases. Pest control methods include chemical, physical, mechanical, cultural, and biological techniques. Issues such as pesticide laws and regulations, record keeping, labels, storage, and safety are discussed. Application of integrated pest management will be stressed.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE1401
Anatomy & Physiology Lab

Description: This class includes the clinical skills (labs) for VTE 1403 Anatomy. Basic body systems are studied at the tissue, organ and systems levels. Comparison of various species of common domestic animals is stressed. Laboratory exercises include a study of the skeletal system and dissection of dog and cat specimens,. Availability of large animal organs for comparison is encouraged. The on-site instructor is responsible for lab instruction grading of laboratory assignments and delivery of lab exams. The on-site instructor may develop an assignment (s) worth 50 points total to customize the class to their site. Student must have a grade of at least 70% (C) to use as a pre-requisite course.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LAB

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE1403
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Description: This on-line class studies basic body systems at the tissue, organ and system levels. Comparison of various species of common domestic animals is stressed. Student must have a grade of at least 70% in VTE 1403 and VTE 1301 to use as a per-requisite course.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE1511
ANIMAL CARE LAB

Description: This lab course contains the clinical skills corresponding to VTE 1512 Animal Care. Both VTE 1512 and VTE 1511 must be taken and passed with a 70% to take Nursing I.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LAB

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE1512
ANIMAL CARE

Description: This on-line survey course introduces the student to canine and feline husbandry, including restraint, behavior, species and breed identification, basic technical techniques and the human-animal bond. Humane animal care and mangement is emphasized. The care, handling, feeding, basic nursing skills, normal values, adminstration techniques, basic grooming and sample collection are included. Both VTE 1512 and VTE 1511 must be taken and passed with a 70% to take Nursing I.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE1611
CONCEPTS IN BITS

Description: Students explore theories and designs of bits in relation to mouth anatomy and decipline functions. History of bits to current industry trend will be explored with the goal of students gaining a thorough understanding of what a bits role is in riding.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE1621
CALVING ROTATION I

Description: Students observe and assist in calving. Enrollment limited. (Pre req: VTS 2532 Lg Animal Techniques, VTS 2593 Nursing II)

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:FLD

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE1623
EQUINE LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS

Description: This course will help familiarize students interested in equine health with a variety of tests and equipment available for equine diagnostics. complete blood counts, biochemical tests, urinalysis and other evaluation techniques will be discussed and practiced in this course.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE1633
EQUINE DISEASES

Description: In this course students study the causes of equine diseases and the principles of preventive veterinary medicine pertaining to equine Study includes investigation of specific diseases and disease control measures as well as parasite management in the equine. Important zoonoses are covered. The course includes dosage calculations, and a survey of the common drug types used in equine medicine. Adverse drug reactions are discussed, labeling and packaging requirements, handling and storage of hazardous material and controlled drugs, preparing medications and vaccines, appropriate routes and methods of drug and vaccine adminstration are included.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE1643
EQUINE HEALTH RECORDS

Description: This course will introduce students to the paperwork and record keeping associated with the horse. Medical records, breeding records, coggins papers, insurance applications, health permits for transportation to events across state borders, and other equine related record keeping will be included in the course. Equine law applications and business issues are introduced as well.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE2011
LIFETIME LEARNING

Description: Continuing education topics designed for Veterinary Technicians to meet continuing education licensing requirements. This class may be repeated for additional CE hours and can be taken by technicians, assistants, and veterinary technology students.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE2023
EMERGENCY MEDICINE
Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE2031
EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Description: Students observe and assist in animal care at an emergency clinic for a minimum of 40 hours. (Pre req: Nursing I with at least 80%)

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:FLD

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE2032
THE WORLD OF WORK

Description: Course involves a minimum of 80 hours of field experience at an approved location. This study is tailored to the needs of an individual. Statement of objectives will be required and progress notes will be checked. This class is developed by the student and under the supervision and evaluation of a faculty member. (Pre req: VT faculty permission)

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:FLD

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE2041
MAKING A DIFFERENCE

Description: Make a difference in the lives of hundreds of unwanted animals. Do 40 hours of volunteer work at a humane society or animal shelter and receive college credit. Enrollment is limited.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:FLD

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE2101
DOG TRAINING

Description: This course includes principles and rationale of canine training. Basic behavior, exploration of techniques and basic training goals are included. Limited enrollment.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE2322
INTRO TO VET OFFICE

Description: This on-line class provides an introduction into the Veterinarian's office and the knowledge essential for working in this position. It focuses on the terminology used in the clinic that is important for communication with clients, technicians, and veterinarians. Terminology expands into knowledge of areas such as infectious diseases, surgery, client relationships, animal care, and vaccinations.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE2342
SPANISH FOR VET TECH
Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE2422
HILLS NUTRITION

Description: This on-line course is an introductory course for students accepted in the veterinary technology program providing identification and function of nutrients, understanding pet food labels, and applications for wellness, life stage, and therapeutic nutrition (prescription foods) for dogs and cats.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE2423
CANINE & FELINE NUTRITION

Description: This is an introductory canine and feline nutrition course. The course provides identification and function of nutrients, understanding pet food labels, and nutritional applications for well and unwell pets. It takes into account the various life stages of dogs and cats and disease processes that diet can affect.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE2522
EXOTIC PETS SELECTION & CARE

Description: This course is designed to introduce students to the selection decisions and overall concerns of owning common exotic animal pets. Specifics about animal species, housing and nutrition requirements as well as expectations of pet behavior and interaction wiil be addressed within this course.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE2532
BASIC BIRD BEHAVIOR AND TRAINING METHODS

Description: This course will introduce students to the basics of bird behavior that influences training methods. The goal of the course is to help students of veterinary technology practice the best care for birds coming into the clinic by providing birds with cooperative skills via training methods. The philosophy of training without force and utilizing reinforcement will be discussed and utilized within the class.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE2542
WALK THE WILD SIDE

Description: Learn about the untamed side of veterinary technician medicine. Discover the positive impact Zoos and Wildlife Rehab centers can make. Work with endangered and rescued animals. Observe the business side of these operations. Do 80 hours of volunteer work at a zoo or wildlife rehab center and receive college credit. Enrollment is limited. (Pre req: Enrollment in Veterinary Technology)

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE2552
FACILITY MANAGEMENT II

Description: Students study and assist with the daily work flow and management of animal facilities utilizing accepted animal welfare practices and standard operating procedures. Front office skill may be practiced and students have the opportunity to provide daily and special care for a selection of animals involved in the veterinary technology program. The course may include some weekend care of animals and facilities. The class is tailored to the student's interest and the division's needs. This class is offered as needed by students and must be prearranged with the division and class sponsor.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LLB

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE2553
EXOTICS

Description: (2 hr lect & 1 hr lab) This course is designed as a continuation in learning to care for exotic animals that the veterinary technician may encounter in clinical practice, rehab centers or zoos. Species identification, housing requirements, nursing care, dietary needs, reproduction, and potential health problems and treatments will be discussed. Specific species studied varies depending on the interest of the class. Emphasis is usually placed on birds, reptiles, amphibians, small mammals, and alternative livestock species. The goal of this course is to provide the student with skills essential for entry-level positions as veterinary assistants and veterinary technicians working with non-domestic animals.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE2573
SAFARI

Description: This course of study is intended for students with a special interest in wildlife and/or exotic animals. Students from other divisions may contribute to a special design based on their department goals or interests. With the guidance of the instructor, students plan the study trip to expand their knowledge in topics outside the scope of college courses. Prior to the "safari", students will set educational goals based on research pertinent to their trip. An open to the public presentation is developed following the experience and is intended to address their educational goals. (Pre req for Vet Tech is Fur and Feather and Exotic Animal Care. Other divisions will select courses at the discretion of the area instructor).

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE2611
EQUINE REPRODUCTIONCrosslisted with ASI 2611

Description: (Lab 1 hr) This course trains individuals in the techniques of Equine artificial insemination, semen collection, semen handling and shipping, as well as record keeping and various breed association requirements.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE2612
EQUINE EMERGENCY MEDICINE AND NURSING

Description: This course explores the world of equine emergencies and nursing care of the horse. It will discuss how to help owners determine true emergencies in the horse versus problems that can wait until morning to see the veterinarian. First aid care and the continued nursing that is needed through recovery. Signs of colic and how to react, splint use and application, emergency drugs to have on hand, controlling hemorrhage, bandaging, wound care, respiratory emergencies and foaling emergencies will be discussed.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTE2613
EQUINE SURGERY AND ANESTHESIA

Description: (Pre-req: Equine Nursing or concurrent enrollment) This course will teach an understanding of and basic skills for operating room protocols and anesthesia. The class will cover anesthesia from standing sedation, to basic and commonly used drugs and the anesthetist's responsibilities for induction, through surgery and recovery. Local and general anesthesia techniques and principles will be covered. The surgery portion will cover identification of common instruments, how to prepare them for sterilization, surgical prep and surgery suite management. This information will be presented through lecture, lab and field trips.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE2621
CALVING ROTATION II

Description: (Pre req: Calving Rotation I) Students observe and assist in calving (if available). Opportunities are available at a variety of sites. Necropsy and various other experiences may present themselves. Enrollment limited.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:FLD

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE2623
FEEDING THE EQUINE PATIENT

Description: This course will introduce students with an equine interest to the nutritional management of the equine patient. Diets and needs for specific classes of horses and the unique nutritional demands placed on horses during various disease processes will be included.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE2634
EQUINE DENTISTRY

Description: Students gain an understanding in theories and techniques of equine dentistry. Dentistry methods from basic floating to complete mouth balancing using hand tools, and incisor work will be covered. Equine restraint techniques for unsedated work as well as pharmacologically aided methods will be covered. (Pre req: Must be a DVM, LVT, or a student who has completed 35 hours of an AVMA accredited program)

Course details
Credit Hours:4
Max credits per semester:4
Max credits per degree:4
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:4

ACE:

VTE2643
EQUINE NURSING

Description: (Pre-req: Production Animals) This course provides information for veterinary technicians, veterinary assistants and equine health care students to enhance and focus their understanding of equine nursing concepts.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE2743
VT OVERVIEW

Description: This course is designed to provide a comprehensive review of the field of veterinary technology. It is intended for students that have completed the veterinary technology program and need to review specific areas before entering the work force or sitting for the national veterinary technician exam.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTE2811
ULTRASOUND

Description: The principles of ultra-sound are studied. The student is introduced to basic equipment care and use. Procedures are performed on small and large animals. (Pre-Req VTS 1404 Anatomy)

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTE2821
RADIATION SAFETY

Description: This course is designed for veterinary assistants who are working in a private practice. The course covers the dangers of radiation and how to protect our patients and ourselves from potential harm. Rules and regulations as they apply to veterinary assistants and technicians are reviewed and a clinic safety plan is developed. Successful completion of this course will allow the individual to meet the State of Nebraska's Radiation Safety requirements.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTL1113
LABORATORY ANIMAL MEDICINE I

Description: Lectures and journal article driven discussions will help students acquire knowledge of topics and skills used by animal research technicians. This course will explore a wide range of topics with the goal of helping prepare studtns for AALAS certification as an Assistant Laboratory Animal Technician (ALAT). Unique attributes of animal species that accommodate their involvement in particular research studies as models of human disease. Students will also gain an appreciation of animal welfare regulations, guidelines and accreditation standards for the care and use of laboratory animals in biomedical research.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTL1122
LABORATORY ANIMAL MEDICINE II

Description: (Pre req: Lab Animal Medicine I) In this course, students will learn about skills that are useful for laboratory animal care technicians such as animal restraint and husbandry, rodent surgery, PCR, advanced imaging, and cell culture. Student further learn and implement many of these skills in a lab associated with the course. These topics are represented on AALAS's Laboratory Animal Technician (LAT) certification exam.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTL1133
LABORATORY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT

Description: This course addresses the unique aspects important in management of a research colony, such as personnel, quality control, emergency planning, and the management of animal use protocols. These topics are represented on AALAS's Laboratory Animal Technologist (LAT) certification exam.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS1262
LABORATORY ANIMAL INTERNSHIP

Description: This 4 week internship provides job experience in the laboratory animal medicine field at an approved work location. Internship may be done during school breaks that are of at least one week in length. Internship locations, agreements and objectives must be approved by the Division. Students will show progress toward completion of objectives through weekly reports and evaluations. Students are encouraged to carry their own medical, disability, and liability insurance. (Pre req: Lab Animal Med II)

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:FLD

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTS1301
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

Description: Medical Terminology introduces the student to basic words and word structure that are essential in reading and writing medical literature. This course is essential for anyone seeking a better understanding of veterinary medical and scientific terms.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTS1313
MATH FOR VET TECHS

Description: This course is specifically designed to prepare students for the mathematics used on a daily basis in veterinary nursing as well on national certification board exams. It includes concepts needed for computations in chemistry and veterinary clinical practice classes. Major subject areas and exercises address conversions within a measurement system and between measurement systems. Computations taught in this course focus on single and multiple step dosage problems and the diluting of stock solutions to desired concentrations.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS1404
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

Description: Basic body systems are studied at the tissue, organ and system levels. Comparison of various species of common domestic animals is stressed. Laboratory exercises include a study of the skeletal system and dissection of a typical mammal. This course is a prerequisite for many other Veterinary Technology courses.

Course details
Credit Hours:4
Max credits per semester:4
Max credits per degree:4
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:4

ACE:

VTS1511
INTRO TO ANIMAL SCIENCE

Description: A course that deals with animal handling, current issues facing the livestock industry, production trends, terminology, animal growth, structure and selection, breeds, and development.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTS1513
ANIMAL CARE

Description: This survey course introduces the student to canine and feline husbandry, behavior, species and breed identification, and the human-animal bond. Humane animal care and management is emphasized. The care, handling, nutritional needs basic nursing skills, normal values, and administration techniques, basic grooming and obtaining objective patient data. Effective and appropriate restraint techniques are stressed. Student must be able to lift and carry 50 lbs. to take this class. This is a lecture and lab class. A 70% or above in this class is required to take Nursing I.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS1521
PRODUCTION ANIMALS I

Prerequisites: ASI 1011 Intro to Animal Science - a grade of 70% or higher

Description: Prerequisites: Intro to Animal Science - a grade of C (70%) or higher (1 hr lab) Specific animal physiology of large and small farm animals is studied. The course includes an introduction to nursing procedures required in veterinary practice for farm animals. Safe and effective methods of controlling various kinds of animals are discussed and practiced in a combination lecture and hands-on laboratory format. Equine, bovine, caprine, poultry, and porcine are covered, as well as other species.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTS1542
FACILITY MANAGEMENT

Description: (Pre req: 80 observation hours in a veterinary clinic) Students study the management of animal holding facilities and the implementation of accepted animal welfare practices. Each student will participate in weekly kennel rotations providing the opportunity to care for the wide variety of animals involved in the veterinary technology program. This class includes daily and weekend care for the animals. As a prerequisite for Nursing II it must be passed with a C or above.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LAB

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTS1603
INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY SCIENCE

Description: Through the application of fundamental biology, students will survey the biological world in association with production animals and human health. Topics include parasitology, hematology, bacteriology, virology and an overview of laboratory procedures. The goal of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the world of microbes as a foundation for an integrated approach to understanding and managing for optimal, as well as economic, animal health decisions.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS1713
PHARMACY-ANESTHESIA

Description: This course includes the study of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, dosage calculations, and a survey of the common drug types used in veterinary practice. Adverse drug reactions are discussed.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS1822
RADIOLOGY I

Description: (Pre req: 18 years of age, and a 70% or above in Anatomy) The student is presented with an overview of radiation safety, the generation of x-rays, machine operation and maintenance, patient positioning, radio-graphic film exposure, film developing, CI imaging, care of darkroom equipment, evaluation of x-ray quality, and correction in techniques for producing a film the veterinarian can use for diagnostic purposes. The laboratory portion is spent applying radiation safety principles and positioning of animals for radiography using various x-ray machines, film developing and computerized imaging storage techniques.. A grade of 70% or higher in Radiology I is required to take Radiology II.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTS2241
CAREER STRATEGIES

Description: This course provides preparation for future employment. Students will develop a cover letter and resume, review OSHA standards, and learn about types of performance reviews common in the work place. Goal setting skills will be sharpened by developing objectives and a way to accomplish them as well as a measure for recognizing success in each area chosen. Students will develop job seeking skills as they locate an internship site.

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTS2243
VETERINARY TECHNOLOGY INTERNSHIP

Description: (Pre req: Completion of or enrolled in Career Strategies and a CGPA of 2.0 or higher) The internship is for a period of 8 weeks. Internship may be done during school breaks that are of at least one week in length or upon completion of all course work. Internship locations and agreements must be approved. For the Veterinary Technician Option internship must be done with a supervising veterinarian or veterinary technician designated by the veterinarian. Agreements may include more than one site. Official agreements are entered into between the student, the employer, and the college. Students identify learning objectives, design a methodology to accomplish them during the internship and must show substantial progress toward completion of these goals through weekly reports, pictures and evaluations. Students are encouraged to carry their own medical, disability, and liability insurance.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:FLD

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS2331
CLINICAL PRACTICES

Description: This class provides practical experience and preparation for working in a veterinary clinic setting. The students will be working in the Dr. Walter Long Veterinary Technician Teaching Clinic where basic technician based services are offered to the clinic clientele consisting of NCTA student, faculty and staff owned animals. As a field experience, students work for a minimum of 80 hours during the semester. (Pre req: Parasitology, Radiology I or Radiation Safety Short Course and Nursing I)

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:LAB

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTS2533
LARGE ANIMAL TECHNIQUES

Description: (Pre req: Production Animals with a grade of 70% (C) or above) This course includes nursing procedures, radiology, and surgery for production animals and equine. Safe and effective methods of controlling various kinds of livestock are discussed and practiced in a combination of lecture and hands-on laboratory format. Equine, bovine, ovine, caprine, procine and poultry as well as other species may be covered.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS2551
LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL ROTATION

Description: (Pre req: grade of "C" or better in Large Animal Techniques) Students will have several extended days (32+ hours) of experiential learning opportunities with various large animal clinics/operations in the area, where they will assist in physical exams, vaccinations, pregnancy checks, necropsies, surgeries, and other large animal procedures (as available).

Course details
Credit Hours:1
Max credits per semester:1
Max credits per degree:1
Course Format:FLD

Credit Hours:1

ACE:

VTS2563
FUR AND FEATHER

Description: This course is an introduction to the care of the smaller furred, feathered, and scaled animals that veterinary technicians may encounter in clinical practice. Species identification, housing requirements, dietary needs, reproduction, and potential health problems will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on birds, rodents, small mammals, and reptiles housed at NCTA. This class includes a lecture and lab component.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS2583
NURSING I

Description: Basic animal nursing skills that are vital to the veterinary technician career are introduced. A large variety of skills are studied and practiced. This class includes a lecture and lab component. This class is pre req for Nursing II. (Pre req: Animal Care)

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS2593
NURSING II

Description: This course is a continuation of Nursing I. Advanced animal nursing skills are studied and practiced. This class includes a lecture and laboratory component. This class is a pre req for Surgery Prep. (Pre req: Facility Mgt. and Nursing I)

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS2652
PARASITOLOGY

Description: Students study parasitic life cycles and parasite identification methods for both internal and external parasites of domestic animals, lab animals and birds. This class includes the collection and preparation of samples and diagnostic tests commonly used by veterinary technicians in the field and those available through commercial laboratory analysis. A survey of current therapy and products available for use will be included in this course. (Pre req: Intro to Laboratory Science with at least a 70%)

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTS2662
HEMATOLOGY

Description: (Pre-req: Parasitology with at least 70%) Student will learn skills pertaining to the study of blood. Included in the class will be: principles of laboratory safety, proper operation and maintenance of clinical laboratory equipment (microscope, centrifuge, hemacytometer, refractometer, and hemoglobinometer) and preparation of microscopic slides (collection of samples, staining techniques, identification of blood elements, reporting of results, and identification of blood parasites). Correct techniques for performing total blood counts, hematocrits, differentials, reticulocyte counts, coagulation tests and hemoglobin determinations will also be included in this course.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTS2672
CLINICAL PATHOLOGY

Description: (Pre-req: Hematology with at least a 70%) Students will continue laboratory testing in the areas of hematology (including blood chemistries); parasitology (including skin scraping analysis); bacteriological culturing, isolation and identification; urinalysis and sample submission.

Course details
Credit Hours:2
Max credits per semester:2
Max credits per degree:2
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:2

ACE:

VTS2733
DISEASES OF VET MED

Description: Students study the causes of animal diseases and the principles of preventive veterinary medicine pertaining to livestock, dogs, cats and laboratory animals. Study includes investigation of specific diseases and disease control measures including biosecurity as well as parasite management in animals. Important zoonoses are covered as well. The necropsy lab provides students the opportunity to learn proper necropsy technique, sample collection and submission for diagnostic tests and appropriate disposal procedures. (Pre req: Anatomy and Physiology and Intro to Microbiology)

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS2823
RADIOLOGY II

Description: This course is a continuation of Radiology I with emphasis placed on principles governing x-ray generation, establishment of technique charts, automatic film development, computerized imaging, exotic, equine, canine and feline radiographs and small animal contrast studies. (Pre req: C (70%) or higher grade in Radiology I)

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS2933
ANESTHESIOLOGY

Description: (Pre-req: A grade of 70% or currently enrolled in Radiology II, Nursing II, Pharmacology and Hematology) Principles of small animal inhalation anesthesia, pre-anesthetics, induction and maintenance anesthesia are covered in this class. Pre-surgical patient evaluations, risk classifications, monitoring techniques, equipment, inhalation machines, systems and safety are all studied in both a lecture and lab format. A 70% or higher in Anesthesiology is a pre-requisite Surgery Prep.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

VTS2953
SURGERY PREPARATION

Description: (Pre req: 70% or higher in Anesthesia, Nursing II, Radiology I, and Clinical Pathology II) The student is introduced to the proper preparation of the surgical theater, instruments, equipment and the animal for aseptic surgery. Students perform all the supporting operating room tasks including pre-surgical screening, anesthesia, patient preparation, surgical assisting, suite set-up, pack preparation and recovery. Correct pre-and post-operative care of the patient is stressed. The lab is an integral portion of this course.

Course details
Credit Hours:3
Max credits per semester:3
Max credits per degree:3
Course Format:LEC

Credit Hours:3

ACE:

Program Outcomes For Veterinary Technician Option

  1. Upon successful completion of the Veterinary Technician Option, students will be able to demonstrate proficiency in the essential skill tasks outlined by the American Veterinary Medical Association. The Skills List represents the complex role of the veterinary technician and encourages instruction in motor skills, critical thinking, entrepreneurship, and clinical application at the entry veterinary technician level in the following areas.
    • Office and Hospital Procedures
    • Pharmacy and Pharmacology
    • Nursing Skills
    • Anesthesia
    • Radiology
    • Surgical Prep & Nursing
    • Parasitology, Hematology, and Clinical Pathology
    • Animal Husbandry, Handling, Behavior, and Restraint
    • Anatomy
  2. Upon successful completion of the Veterinary Technician Option, students will be able to demonstrate the academic background needed to pass a national Veterinary Technician National Exam (licensing). This is assessed through the VT Exit Exam and obtaining a 3.0 CGPA.

Program Outcomes For Veterinary Assistant Option

  1. Students will be able to effectively communicate in oral and written formats.
  2. Upon successful completion of the Veterinary Assistant Option, students will be able to demonstrate proficiency in the essential skills and tasks outlined by the American Veterinary Medical Association. The skills list represents the complex role of the veterinary assistant and encourages instruction in motor skills, critical thinking, entrepreneurship and clinical application at the entry veterinary technician level in the following areas:
  • Office and Hospital Procedures
  • Pharmacy and Pharmacology
  • Nursing Skills
  • Anesthesia
  • Radiology
  • Surgical Prep and Nursing
  • Parasitology, Hematology, and Clinical Pathology
  • Animal Husbandry, Handling, Behavior, and Restraint
  • Anatomy

Program Outcomes For Animal Husbandry, Animal Health Management, Equine Health Care

  1. Students will be able to effectively communicate in oral and written formats.
  2. Students will be able to exhibit required knowledge and skills consistent with their chosen field of study. (Technical Competence)
    • Office and Hospital Procedures
    • Pharmacy and Pharmacology
    • Nursing Skills
    • Nursing
    • Animal Husbandry, Handling, Behavior, and Restraint
    • Anatomy